Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
5.3.3. Algorithm

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5.3.3. Algorithm

5.3.3. Algorithm

The top level algorithm has four steps:

  1. See if the answer is in local information, and if so return it to the client.

  2. Find the best servers to ask.

  3. Send them queries until one returns a response.

  4. Analyze the response, either:

    1. if the response answers the question or contains a name error, cache the data as well as returning it back to the client.

    2. if the response contains a better delegation to other servers, cache the delegation information, and go to step 2.

    3. if the response shows a CNAME and that is not the answer itself, cache the CNAME, change the SNAME to the canonical name in the CNAME RR and go to step 1.

    4. if the response shows a servers failure or other bizarre contents, delete the server from the SLIST and go back to step 3.

Step 1 searches the cache for the desired data. If the data is in the cache, it is assumed to be good enough for normal use. Some resolvers have an option at the user interface which will force the resolver to ignore the cached data and consult with an authoritative server. This is not recommended as the default. If the resolver has direct access to a name server's zones, it should check to see if the desired data is present in authoritative form, and if so, use the authoritative data in preference to cached data.

Step 2 looks for a name server to ask for the required data. The general strategy is to look for locally-available name server RRs, starting at SNAME, then the parent domain name of SNAME, the grandparent, and so on toward the root. Thus if SNAME were Mockapetris.ISI.EDU, this step would look for NS RRs for Mockapetris.ISI.EDU, then ISI.EDU, then EDU, and then . (the root). These NS RRs list the names of hosts for a zone at or above SNAME. Copy the names into SLIST. Set up their addresses using local data. It may be the case that the addresses are not available. The resolver has many choices here; the best is to start parallel resolver processes looking for the addresses while continuing onward with the addresses which are available. Obviously, the design choices and options are complicated and a function of the local host's capabilities. The recommended priorities for the resolver designer are:

  1. Bound the amount of work (packets sent, parallel processes started) so that a request can't get into an infinite loop or start off a chain reaction of requests or queries with other implementations EVEN IF SOMEONE HAS INCORRECTLY CONFIGURED SOME DATA.

  2. Get back an answer if at all possible.

  3. Avoid unnecessary transmissions.

  4. Get the answer as quickly as possible.

If the search for NS RRs fails, then the resolver initializes SLIST from the safety belt SBELT. The basic idea is that when the resolver has no idea what servers to ask, it should use information from a configuration file that lists several servers which are expected to be helpful. Although there are special situations, the usual choice is two of the root servers and two of the servers for the host's domain. The reason for two of each is for redundancy. The root servers will provide eventual access to all of the domain space. The two local servers will allow the resolver to continue to resolve local names if the local network becomes isolated from the internet due to gateway or link failure.

In addition to the names and addresses of the servers, the SLIST data structure can be sorted to use the best servers first, and to insure that all addresses of all servers are used in a round-robin manner. The sorting can be a simple function of preferring addresses on the local network over others, or may involve statistics from past events, such as previous response times and batting averages.

Step 3 sends out queries until a response is received. The strategy is to cycle around all of the addresses for all of the servers with a timeout between each transmission. In practice it is important to use all addresses of a multihomed host, and too aggressive a retransmission policy actually slows response when used by multiple resolvers contending for the same name server and even occasionally for a single resolver. SLIST typically contains data values to control the timeouts and keep track of previous transmissions.

Step 4 involves analyzing responses. The resolver should be highly paranoid in its parsing of responses. It should also check that the response matches the query it sent using the ID field in the response. The ideal answer is one from a server authoritative for the query which either gives the required data or a name error. The data is passed back to the user and entered in the cache for future use if its TTL is greater than zero.

If the response shows a delegation, the resolver should check to see that the delegation is "closer" to the answer than the servers in SLIST are. This can be done by comparing the match count in SLIST with that computed from SNAME and the NS RRs in the delegation. If not, the reply is bogus and should be ignored. If the delegation is valid the NS delegation RRs and any address RRs for the servers should be cached. The name servers are entered in the SLIST, and the search is restarted.

If the response contains a CNAME, the search is restarted at the CNAME unless the response has the data for the canonical name or if the CNAME is the answer itself.

Details and implementation hints can be found in [RFC-1035].


Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
5.3.3. Algorithm